Unitech Water Solution
Unitech Water Solution
Ellis Bridge, Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Water Softening Plant

Softening is a process where Calcium and Magnesium ions are exchanged for Sodium ions. Calcium and Magnesium ions associated with Alkalinity contribute for scale formation. These ions are also called as Total hardness. The strong acid Cation exchange resin in Sodium form is used for softening the water. When the resin is exhausted, it is regenerated with brine solution (Sodium Chloride) 10 % or 15% brine solution is normally used for the regeneration. If the brine solution is passed from the bottom of the resin and service flow is from the top, then it is called as Up flow softener. If the service and regeneration flows are from top to bottom, then it is called as down flow softeners. The softeners are run up to the Hardness slip of 5 ppm as CaCO3 in the treated water, which is called as Industrial Zero hardness.


The idea behind a water softener is simple. The calcium and magnesium ions in the water are replaced with sodium ions. Since sodium does not precipitate out in pipes or react badly with soap, both of the problems of hard water are eliminated. To do the ion replacement, the water in the house runs through a bed of ion exchange resin. The resins are covered with sodium ions. As the water flows past the sodium ions, they swap places with the calcium and magnesium ions. Eventually, the resin contains nothing but calcium and magnesium and no sodium, and at this point they stop softening the water. It is then time to regenerate the ion exchange resin. Regeneration involves soaking the resin in a stream of sodium ions. Salt is sodium chloride, so the water softener mixes up a very strong brine solution and flushes it through the resin bed. The strong brine displaces all of the calcium and magnesium that has built up in the resin and replaces it again with sodium. The remaining brine plus all of the calcium and magnesium is flushed out through a drainpipe

Iron Removal Filter (Capacity: 2000 Liter/hr)

Iron Removal Filter (Capacity: 2000 Liter/hr)
  • Iron Removal Filter (Capacity: 2000 Liter/hr)
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Approx. Price: Rs 70,000 / PieceGet Latest Price

Product Details:

Purification TypeIon Exchange
Usage/ApplicationIndustrial / Domestic / Commercial
Capacity>1000 litres/hour
Size13" x 54"
Installation/Civil WorkNot Required

Iron, even in small quantities, can be one of the most troublesome elements found in water. As little as 0.3 ppm (parts per million) of iron can cause staining of fixtures, sinks, flooring, and also most anything else it comes into contact with. Concentrations below 0.3 ppm can still have profound adverse effects in manufacturing processes. Iron affects the tastes of foods and beverages, can contribute to the block-age of pipes, and can cause many other unwanted problems. Since it has so many undesirable properties, iron removal is an important phase of water treatment.

  • State Symbol
  • Elemental, metallic iron Fe
  • Ferrous iron Fe + +
  • Ferric iron Fe + + +

In underground strata, far from the oxidizing effects of oxygen in air, conditions usually favor the reduction of the natural ferric iron deposits to the ferrous state. Since the ferrous salts are highly soluble, ground water supplies frequently carry significant concentrations, and as this ferrous iron is in true solution, the water may be perfectly clear and colorless, with no visible evidence of the iron present. However, when ferrous iron is exposed to the atmosphere, oxygen from the air readily converts it to the ferric state. Ferric iron then reacts with the alkalinity in the water to form ferric hydroxide, the insoluble brown gelatinous matter which causes so much staining.

The corrosion of iron or steel water lines may also add iron to the water. Metal corrosion, an electro-chemical process, converts the elemental metallic iron to the soluble ferrous state. In the absence of oxygen and other oxidizing agents, the ferrous iron may be simply carried away with the water. Where oxidizing materials are present, the insoluble ferric hydroxide forms readily. This, too, may be carried along with the water, or since it is quite insoluble and gelatinous in nature, may deposit and stick inside the water lines. This is true even when natural ferrous iron is oxidized inside of pipes.

Ferric hydroxide which is deposited inside a water line has a tendency to lose water, particularly in hot water lines, according to the reaction:

2 Fe (OH)3 --------------> Fe2 O3 + H2O

This ferric oxide is the same rust which forms when an iron or steel structure is exposed to both air and moisture. During periods of high water flow, these rust particles may break free to cause rust stains on materials which comes into contact with water.

Iron may also be present in water in combination with organic matter. Many natural and man-made organic compounds will react, particularly with ferrous iron, to form heavily colored compounds which can cause severe staining. These compounds are usually very stable, and tie up the iron so that it is not free to react as are other forms. The iron bounds into such compounds called "chelated" or "organic" and clearly present problems in water treatment.

"Iron bacteria" is a term applied to a group of small organisms which appear to convert ferrous iron to the ferric state as part of their metabolism. It is suspected that these organisms may even attack steel pipe to obtain iron, thus causing a form of corrosion. As the iron bacteria grow, they develop masses of gelatinous and filamentous organic matter, which physically trap the ferric hydroxide produced. Heavy growths of these organisms have been known to plug pipes completely, but it is more common for clumps to break away during periods of high flow to produce "slugs" of iron laden water, which can cause all of the previously described staining problems.

Iron bacteria can be identified by a microscopic examination of the turbidity they produce, but the necessary laboratory facilities are not always readily available. However, the presence of a brown, slime-like growth at the surface of the water in a toilet flush tank is a good indication of the presence of iron bacteria in the system.



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Ravi Shah (Managing Director)
611, 6th Floor, Mahakant Complex, Opposite V. S. Hospital, Beside SBI, Paldi
Ellis Bridge, Ahmedabad- 380006, Gujarat, India

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